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Shen Nong and Huang Di were the representatives of the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors.在“三皇五帝”中最具有代表性的部落联盟领袖是神农和黄帝。Shen Nong, also called Yan Di, lived in the Jiang River valley and his surname was Jiang.神农又称炎帝,居于姜水流域,以姜为姓。He is credited with the invention of farming and medication. He invented the wooden plow and taught people the art of agriculture. By experimenting with various plants, he discovered medicinal herbs and taught people how to treat diseases.他是农业生产和医药的发明者,用木制作耒耜,教人民耕种;又曾尝百草,发现药材,教人治病。Huang Di , also called Xuan Yuan or You Xiong, lived in the Ji River valley, and his surname was Ji.黄帝又称轩辕氏、有熊氏,居于姬水流域,以姬为姓。He is resourceful in invention as well as in war and is credited with the invention of many things, like carts and boats, clothes, houses, writing, and silkworm breeding and silk weaving.他不但在军事上足智多谋,而且还是个伟大的发明家。人们认为车船、衣、房子、文字、养蚕织布等都是他发明的。Wars urged the mixture and the assimilation of different tribes and eventually formed a tribal alliance of Huang Di and Yan Di ; Huang Di became the chief.各部落联盟之间的战争催化了部落之间的融合,最终形成了中原地区炎帝、黄帝两大部落联盟的统一,黄帝成为最高领袖。Tradition has it that Chinese civilization originates from the era of Huang Di and Yan Di,for they are the ancestors of Chinese people,that is why the Chinese call themselves the descendants of Yan and Huang.传说中国文明起源于炎帝和黄帝时代,因此“炎帝、 黄帝”被奉为中华民族的祖先,这就是现在中国人自称是炎黄子孙的由来。Huang Di has been immortalized by the famous battle of Zhu Lu, where he used a compass to locate his chief enemy Chi You and defeated him. Chi You was killed in the battle, and this victory is believed to have prepared the way for a permanent Chinese settlement in the Middle Kingdom.黄帝因涿鹿之战而名垂千古。在作战过程中,他用指南针找到了敌军的首领蚩尤,并击败他,后蚩尤被杀。这场战争的胜利为中华民族定居中原铺平了道路。Abdication : Hundreds of years after Sheng Nong and Huang Di, it is the period of Abdication in Chinese history.部落联盟领袖的禅让制度:神农、黄帝时代数百年之后,是中国历史上的“禅让时代”。At that time, Yao, the chief of the tribal alliance on the central plain, was old, and he selected Shun as his successor after a careful observation. With the consent of all chieftains, Shun was placed to the throne.当时中原地区部落联盟领袖尧已年老,经过慎重考察,选择舜为继承人,四岳十二牧(部落领袖)同意,尧将部落联盟领袖职务传位给舜。Following suit, Shun passed the throne to Yu.舜老,又得四岳十二牧同意,传位给禹。Abdication is the traditional election system in the time of tribal commune, historically called the Age of Abdication.这种职位禅让的做法乃是氏族公社选举制的传统,史称“禅让时代”。 /201510/407399The Republic of China中华民国Xinhai Revolution辛亥革命The Xinhai Revolution(辛亥革命),named for the Chinese year of Xinhai (1911),was the overthrow of China’s ruling Qing Dynasty(清朝), sometimes known as the Manchu Dynasty, and the establishment of the Republic of China(中华民国).因为起义发生在1911年辛亥年,故被称为辛亥革命,辛亥革命推翻了统治中国的清王朝(也叫作满族王朝),并且建立了中华民国。The revolution began with the armed Wuchang Uprising (武昌起义) and the sp of republican insurrection through the southern provinces, and culminated in the abdication of the Xuantong (宣统)Emperor after lengthy negotiations between rival Imperial and Republican regimes based in Beijing and Nanjing respectively.革命始于武昌武装起义,并于南部诸省掀起了呈燎原之势的暴动,在北京清政府和南京民国政府漫长的谈判后,革命以宣统皇帝退位告终。In 1900, the ruling Qing Dynasty(清朝) decided to create a modernized army, called the “New Army”(新军).在1900年,清政府决定建立一现代化军队,并命名“新军”。At the time, the city of Wuchang, on the Yangtze River in the province of Hubei, had the most modernized military industry, so it became the site where weapons and other military equipment for the New Army was manufactured.当时,湖北沿江城市武昌拥有现代化程度最高的军事工业,因此成为了为新军生产武器和其他军事装备的基地。The revolutionary ideas of Sun Yat-sen extensively influenced officers and soldiers of the New Army in Wuchang, and many participated in revolutionary organizations.孙中山的革命思想广泛影响了武昌新军中的军官和士兵,许多人由此加入了革命组织。The uprising itself broke out largely by accident.起义的爆发极大程度上算是一个意外。Revolutionaries intent on overthrowing the Qing dynasty had built bombs and one accidentally exploded.意图推翻清政府的革命者一直在生产炸弹,然而其中一个不慎爆炸。This led police to investigate, and they discovered lists of revolutionaries within the New Army.这引来警察前来调查,暴露了新军中的一群革命者。At this point elements of the New Army revolted rather than face arrest.此时,这些革命者选择起义而不是就范。The provincial government panicked and fled.省政府闻之惊慌逃跑。Initially, the revolt was considered to be merely the latest in a series of mutinies that had occurred in southern China, and was widely expected to be quickly put down.最初,起义被认为只不过是发生在中国南部的新一轮骚乱,可以在很短时间内平息。The fact that it had much larger implications was due to the fact that the Qing dynasty delayed acting against the rebellion, allowing provincial assemblies in many southern provinces to declare independence from the Qing and allegiance to the rebellion.然而因为清政府推迟了镇压起义的行动,起义造成了越来越大的影响,南方很多省政府宣布独立并加入起义。Sun Yat-sen himself had no direct part in the uprising and was traveling in the ed States at the time in an effort to recruit more support from among overseas Chinese.孙中山本人并没有直接参与起义,他当时正在美国四处奔走,试图取得更多海外华人的持。He found out about the uprising by ing a newspaper report.他在报纸上知道了起义事件。A sense of the Qing dynasty’s having lost the mandate of heaven may have contributed to the revolt.有观念认为起义的原因是因为清朝失了天命。Evidence of the loss of the mandate of heaven, in China, often constitutes of natural disasters, such as fires and floods.在中国,失天命的据通常是火灾或是洪水等自然灾害。The Yangtze overflowed its banks in 1911, and the revolting troops were, of course, situated near that river.1911年长江泛滥,而起义军就驻扎在江边。Such a flood would have had a profound psychological impact on any government officials, rebels, peasants, and other Chinese in the vicinity, and the flood was a notable disaster, with 100 000 fatalities.这样大的洪水对于政府官员,起义军,农民和长江附近的中国人们带来了深远的心理影响,这场巨大的灾难造成了10万人死亡。The Qing government failed to respond for a crucial few weeks.清政府在最关键的几周未能及时做出对应。This gave the revolutionaries time to declare a provisional government.这就给革命者时间去成立了一个临时政府。Other provincial assemblies then joined the revolutionaries.其他省议会也逐渐加入革命者行列。Within a month, representatives of the seceding provinces had met to declare a Republic of China.一个月内,脱离清政府统治的省份都派出代表,开会讨论并宣布了中国民国的成立。A compromise between the conservative gentry and the revolutionaries saw Sun Yat-sen chosen as provisional president(临时大总统).在保守贵族和革命者的妥协下,孙中山被选为临时大总统。Leaving the brilliant impression on China modem history, the Xinhai Revolution is a great piece of political affair shocked around the world, which is the first time to flag Democracy republic on China.辛亥革命作为一个震惊世界的的政治事件,在中国现代史上留下了浓墨重的一笔,这是民主共和的旗帜第一次飘扬在中国的土地上。It overthrew the Qing dynasty and founded the Republic of China.它推翻了清王朝,建立了民主共和国。This emancipated the people from the rule of the feudal system.并将人民从封建制度的统治中解放出来。 /201512/412291

A new body challengehas emerged in Chinafollowing the popularity of previouscontortiontests, with the latest relying on flexibility。前阵子中国掀起了一股“反手摸肚脐”身体挑战热潮,现在新的身体柔韧挑战项目又诞生了。The #39;reverse praying#39; trend seesusers uploadingphotos of themselves to social media with theirhandsclasped in a #39;prayer#39; position behind theirbacks。在“反手祈祷”风潮中,参与者纷纷把自己双手合十到背后作“祈祷”状的照片上传到社交媒体上。It is the latest craze of its kind following the collarbone challengein which Chinese womenattempted to hold a stack of coins in theircollarbone but only after 300 million people tried totouch theirnavels from around their backs - to showcase their slimphysiques。继3亿人参与的反手摸肚脐挑战,以及锁骨硬币挑战之后,中国女性又开始用这项最新挑战来展示苗条身材。The new physical challengeappeared on China#39;s popular microblogging website Sina Weibolastweek and like the belly button challenge, the new #39;reverse praying#39;posture is about howflexible the body is。上周,这项新的身体挑战在中国的人气微网站新浪微上发起。类似反手摸肚脐挑战,新的“反手祈祷”姿势考验身体柔韧度。Most of the participants have been young women who took the opportunityto show off theirflexibility by holding their mobile phones betweentheir palms。大多数参加挑战的都是年轻女性,她们通过“反手夹手机”来展现身体的柔韧度。The true test of thereverse prayer is how close the fingertips are to the neck as thehigherthe hands are, the more flexible the body is shown tobe。反手祈祷要测的是手指离颈部的距离。手越举越高,表明身体柔韧度越高。One user even went as far as to make a chart demonstrating the success of a #39;reverse prayer#39;with a #39;goddess#39; seeing the fingertips reach the top of the neck。一个用户甚至用背影做了一张图表来阐释“反手祈祷”的成功程度,指尖能到达颈部的是“女神”。The practice has been slammed by several users, some opposingsetting a standard thatmany would be physically unable to match,leaving them feeling inferior, and others objectingto the term#39;reverse praying#39;。这一行为受到了一些用户的抨击,有人反对设定这样一个很多人根本无法达到的身体标准,这让她们觉得自己很差劲;还有人则反对使用“反手祈祷”一词。One online user posted on China Weibo: #39;It is certainly irreverent and insulting to those towhom religion is a key part of their life. Those posting these images should be ashamed ofthemselves.#39;一名网友在新浪微上写道:“对那些有着虔诚宗教信仰的人来说,这是一种不尊重甚至是羞辱。那些发照片的人应该感到羞愧。” /201509/399368

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